Several epidemiological investigations indicate that cancer survivors have a lower risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vice versa. However, the associations between plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ) levels with cancer remain largely unknown. In this case–control study, 110 cancer patients, 70 AD patients, and 70 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited. The cancer types include esophagus cancer, colorectal cancer, hepatic cancer, and lung cancer, all of which were reported to be associated with a lower risk for AD. Plasma levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, common pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, anti-inflammatory IL-4, chemokines, and cytokines MCP-1 were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Plasma levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in all cancer patients were higher than that in normal controls. More specifically, hepatic cancer patients exhibited significantly higher plasma Aβ levels. No significant difference in plasma Aβ levels was found between chemotherapy and no chemotherapy subgroups. Plasma Aβ levels were not significantly correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory, chemokines, and cytokines. Peripheral Aβ levels increased in cancer patients, especially in patients with hepatic cancer, independent of chemotherapy and inflammation. Further verification is required for the association between plasma Aβ and cancer.
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